An Introduction of Satkara

Published: 06th January 2011
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Introduction


General


Citrus macroptera var. annamensis Tanaka commonly known as ‘Satkara’ is an important citrus fruit crop of the family Rutaceae. It is the major family from which maximum vitamin-C contents are collected. In USA 40% of total perfume production is done from various citrus species. The fruit of this species is edible & popular among the people of greater Sylhet region of Bangladesh & Meghalaya & Assam of India. In Bangladesh both green & matured fruits are used in cooking for flavoring curry & also for pickle preparation. The fruits are used as a traditional medicine by the local tribes of Assam in India. Chowdhury et al. had reported the antioxidant activity of the crude extract of this plant. Recently, composition of the essential oil of this species has analyzed & various type of organic compounds e.g. myrcene, limonene, octanol, nonanal,linalool, octanol, geraniol, elemol etc. is found.A number of genera are not clearly defined & are in need of modern monographic treatments. In Bangladesh C. macroptera scatterdly found in the hilly areas of greater Sylhet districts particularly in Jaintopur, Jaflong, Baralekha, Bianibazar, Chattak etc.


Citrus macroptera var. annamensis is one of the important species of this family.











Fig.-cross section Fig.-citrus macroptera var.


Of citrus macroptera. annamensis.





Table-1:- Major citrus species (only species with English names shown, more purely asian species and varieties exist)


Scientific name Varieties


Citrus depressa Flat lemon, Hirami lemon, Thin-skinned flat lemon


Citrus glaberrima Silk-skinned orange


Citrus hassaku Hassaku orange


Citrus hystrix Kaffir lime (Aust.), Mauritius papeda


Citrus ichangensis Ichang papeda, Ichang lime


Citrus indica Indian wild orange


Citrus jambhiri Rough lemon, Jambhiri orange, Citronelle


Citrus kotokan Tiger head pomelo


Citrus atipes Khasi papeda


Citrus S limetta Sweet limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon, Sweet lemon, Sweet lime


Citrus limettioides Indian sweet lime, Brazil sweet lime "enjoyed out-of-hand"


Citrus limonimedica Ethrog


Citrus limonum Small Egyptian lime


Citrus longilimon Assam lemon, Long-fruited lemon, Oblong lemon


Citrus macrophylla Macrophylla rootstock


Citrus macroptera Melanesian papeda


Citrus nana Dwarf citron tree


Citrus natsudaidai Japanese summer orange, Japanese bitter mandarin


Citrus nobilis Mandarin orange, Tangerine orange, King mandarin, Cambodian mandarin, Indo-Chinese mandarin


Citrus oto Yellow orange.


Citrus paratangerina Ladu mandarin.


Citrus pyriformis Ponderosa lemon


Citrus reshni Spice tangerine, Cleopatra mandarin, Loose-skinned baby mandarin


Citrus sunki Sunki mandarin, Sour mandarin, Sunkat


Citrus tardiva Japanese summer orange, Japanese sweet orange


Citrus volkameriana Volkamer lemon





Medicinal Importance of Citrus Fruits


Citrus zest is the skin of fruits such as oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit, tangerines and mandarins. They are some of the most numerous and widely consumed fruits in the world today and lemon skin in particular is used widely as a flavourant. As well as being eaten as fruits and juices, citrus peels, which contain the greatest concentration of their valuable phytonutrients, are frequently used as " citrus zest", seasonings that add flavour to a variety of preserves, and sweet and savoury dishes. However, as we learn more about plants and the chemicals they contain, it is becoming clear that many other phytonutrients found in citrus zest contribute towards the extensive health benefits that are often still attributed to vitamin C. Until recently, the perceived medicinal properties of citrus have been associated primarily with vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which occurs in high concentrations in all of the citrus species.


As anticancer agents, citrus fruits have been subject to considerable research and have been shown to work against a number of cancer types. The fibre in citrus, called pectin, has also been studied and found to reduce the progression of advanced prostate cancer. Pectin can also lower the risk of a recurrence of mouth and throat cancers.

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